The archaeology of knowledge summary. The Archaeology of Knowledge 2019-01-28

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The Archaeology of Knowledge & The Discourse on Language by Michel Foucault

the archaeology of knowledge summary

The Formation of Concepts 6. One would no longer seek an architecture of concepts sufficiently general and abstract to embrace all others and to introduce them into the same deductive structure; one would try to analyse the interplay of their appearances and dispersion. Do you really have to be so damned inscrutable?? We are not trying to reconstitute what madness itself might be, in the form in which it first presented itself to some primitive, fundamental, deaf, scarcely articulated' experience, and in the form in which it was later organised translated, deformed, travestied, perhaps even repressed by discourses, and the oblique, often twisted play of their operations. The E-mail message field is required. Madness, sexuality, power, knowledge—are these facts of life or simply parts of speech? What defined and closed group does one imagine one is circumscribing in this way? As a result, to the extent that Husserl has grounded everything in the transcendental subject, this is not the subject cogito of Descartes but the modern cogito, which includes the empirical unthought. On the other hand, it was no doubt at this period that new surfaces of appearance began to function: art with its own normativity, sexuality its deviations in relation to customary prohibitions become for the first time an object of observation, description, and analysis for psychiatric discourse , penality whereas in previous periods madness was carefully distinguished from criminal conduct and was regarded as an excuse, criminality itself becomes - and subsequent to the celebrated 'homicidal monomanias' - a form of deviance more or less related to madness.

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The Archaeology of Knowledge Summary

the archaeology of knowledge summary

The ability to say anything about a particular object is dependent on relations of resemblance, proximity, distance, difference, and transformation. Another, at an even more basic level, might investigate how ritual discourse in the time of Socrates, Plato, and the Sophists arranged itself into a division between true and false discourse, each with its own uses. Hence, what he proposes is a means, and not an ends, to looking at fields of knowledge. It also breaks down the notion of continuous history based on the flow of cause and effect, on social or cultural analogy, or, ultimately, on the necessary unfolding of an ideal pattern. A good example, and one that Foucault uses, is the relation between the object of madness and the space of the institution.

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The Archaeology of Knowledge by Michel Foucault

the archaeology of knowledge summary

A total description draws all phenomena around a single centre. This description is easily distinguishable from an analysis of the language. The use of concepts of discontinuity, rupture, threshold, limit, series, and transformation present all historical analysis not only with questions of procedure, but with theoretical problems. Is it the same in the case of Mallarmé's Un Coup de dés, the trial of Gilles de Rais, Butor's San Marco, or a Catholic missal? Foucault accepts the possibility that his vocabulary, style, and method may fade away, or that they may become the victims of the proven propensity of social science to make itself its own object. Pirouetting around the outer edge of language, Foucault unsettles the surface of literary writing. The characteristics and possibilities of discourse are not permanent, or intrinsically true.

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Summaries of my Readings: Michel Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge

the archaeology of knowledge summary

This work acts as a critique of current scholarly publishing practices, exposing the inequalities in the way academic knowledge is constructed and legitimized. And I, in turn, will do no more than this: of course, I shall take as my starting-point whatever unities are already given such as psychopathology, medicine, or political economy ; but I shall not place myself inside these dubious unities in order to study their internal configuration or their secret contradictions. As the example of the Panopticon shows, power often functions according to a clear rationality irrespective of the intentions and motives of the individual who guards the prison from the tower. In this way, The Archeology of Knowledge is not so much a work of theory, as it is a method of invention. What more can I say? It would be inadequate to say that one was dealing here with the consequences of a discovery: of the sudden discovery by a psychiatrist of a resemblance between, criminal and pathological behaviour, a discovery of the presence in certain delinquents of the classical signs of alienation, or mental derangement. The popular discourse on sexuality thus fervently argued for sexual liberation: we had to liberate our true sexuality from the repressive mechanisms of power.

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Michel Foucault

the archaeology of knowledge summary

I just hope you get there before you put a stick in your eye. Thus one is led inevitably, through the naïvety of chronologies, towards an ever-receding point that is never itself present in any history; this point is merely its own void; and from that point all beginnings can never be more than recommencements or occultation in one and the same gesture, this and that. Archaeology attempts to make visible the regulations, operational rules, and the practicing possibilities of discourse in society. At the end of the book Foucault takes up the question of whether we can find a scientific truth about sex. But archaeological description is precisely such an abandonment of the history of ideas, a systematic rejection of its postulates and procedures, an attempt to practice quite a different history of what men have said.

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Michel Foucault

the archaeology of knowledge summary

Depending on whether or not it complies with these rules of discursive meaning, a grammatically correct phrase may lack discursive meaning or, inversely, a grammatically incorrect sentence may be discursively meaningful - even meaningless letters e. This is not a history of geniuses who invented new concepts, but a history of how particular concepts and ideas emerge within particular social and cultural contexts, as many people begin to talk about the same thing in the same way. It's best read as the closing of a series of books in which Foucault is analyzing while trying to formulate a way of analyzing institutions. Foucault after Foucault Foucault left instructions that there should be no posthumous publication of his writings that he had not published in his lifetime. His method of analysis is similar to the one he used to study the techniques and practices of power in the context of particular, local institutions such as the prison. Didn't I finish Discipline and Punish and Madness and Civilization? This is impossible, since it would require knowing the object without a representation when, for Classical thought, to know is to represent.

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The Archaeology of Knowledge & The Discourse on Language by Michel Foucault

the archaeology of knowledge summary

Foucault outlined what became one of the most influential contemporary understandings of power in a series of short propositions over three pages of The History of Sexuality, Volume 1. One has to analyze power relations from the bottom up and not from the top down, and to study the myriad ways in which the subjects themselves are constituted in these diverse but intersecting networks. Translated as The Archaeology of Knowledge, Allan Sheridan trans. Begin the collection of this book in Kindle Paper, Epub, Docx and Ebook versions with some steps we provide on the buttons. The book addressed how notions of truth, or the self, are constructions and interrelations of inherited discourses that are in a malleable state, capable of being changed, and transformed. He admits, in The Archaeology of Knowledge, that he's acutely embarrassed by the question of whether this latest work is history or philosophy, and finally decides that it is neither. Write systematically so that it becomes a unique and inspiring reading.

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The archaeology of knowledge (Book, 2008) [therapeutic-journeys.com]

the archaeology of knowledge summary

One last precaution must be taken to disconnect the unquestioned continuities by which we organise, in advance, the discourse that we are to analyse: we must renounce two linked, but opposite themes. While this feature is commonly analyzed and also criticized in political thought, Foucault also identifies the evolution of a second feature that appears to be antagonistic to this development. Later, Locke, Hume, and especially, Kant developed a distinctively modern idea of philosophy as the critique of knowledge. Do you really have to be so damned inscrutable?? But above all, he develops his own terminology to explain how he thinks history ought to be done, departing from then-contemporary trends. It would not satisfy such a critic to answer that the complexity of this question lies outside the scope of Foucault's inquiry, or that it belongs to an older form of history. It does not operate by repressing and prohibiting the true and authentic expressions of a natural sexuality.

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The Archaeology of Knowledge & The Discourse on Language by Michel Foucault

the archaeology of knowledge summary

These two possibilities contained within economic theory, and in the rules of its set of concepts, resulted, on the basis of the same elements, in two different options. Its functions, movements and capabilities were broken down into narrow segments, analyzed in detail and recomposed in a maximally effective way. I had to slog through this one just to make sure the main ideas I'm building off of for my thesis aren't being misrepresented a recurring nightmare of mine. The conditions necessary for the appearance of an object of discourse, the historical conditions required if one is to 'say anything' about it, and if several people are to say different things about it, the conditions necessary if it is to exist in relation to other objects, if it is to establish with them relations of resemblance, proximity, distance, difference, transformation - as we can see, these conditions are many and imposing. To conjure up their rich, heavy, immediate plenitude, which we usually regard as the primitive law of a discourse that has become divorced from it through error, oblivion, illusion, ignorance, or the inertia of beliefs and traditions, or even the perhaps unconscious desire not to see and not to speak.

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The Archaeology of Knowledge

the archaeology of knowledge summary

Unfortunately Foucault makes it very very difficult to see his point sometimes. It refuses to be 'allegorical'. The relation between therapeutic confinement in hospital with its own thresholds, its criteria of cure, its way of distinguishing the normal from the pathological and punitive confinement in prison with its system of punishment and pedagogy, its criteria of good conduct, improvement, and freedom. They do not define its internal constitution, but what enables it to appear, to juxtapose itself with other objects, to situate itself in relation to them, to define its difference, its irreducibility, and even perhaps its heterogeneity, in short, to be placed in a field of exteriority. ? Biographical Sketch Foucault was born in Poitiers, France, on October 15, 1926.

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