Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 76—80. Together, the chapters in this handbook provide a comprehensive and integrative resource for all those who seek to understand the nature of intergroup conflict and strategies through which conflicts between groups may be resolved or reduced to promote reconciliation and peace. To further explore these strategies, in addition to readings in your text, read the following article paying particular attention to pages 588 to 593. According to the contact hypothesis, which underpins much of the research done in the field of intergroup relations, several factors are necessary in order to improve intergroup relations through direct contact with people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds. And increasingly, this research is focusing on the role that emotion plays in distorting our sense of time…. And what sometimes happens when a company runs shifts around the clock? It is at home where young people get their primary information, both implicitly and explicitly, about their own racial and ethnic identity, and where they pick up attitudes about other groups. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
The studies reviewed at the workshop also raise questions as to what generalizations can be drawn from specific findings, how to disentangle associations from causality, how results can be duplicated in other settings, and how successful interventions or best practices can be reproduced on a larger scale. Carlson cautioned that schools need to pay serious attention to whatever group is in the minority. Rather, it is a report based on research findings and related observations on the subject of intergroup relations as covered at the meeting. A research team in Massachusetts led by Dennis J. In the workplace, this type of intergroup conflict should produce positive change, feelings of connection, a sense of belonging and a boost in productivity and morale. Peace psychology for a peaceful world.
Question Research suggests a number of strategies to reduce intergroup conflict. Nadler further develops the theme of reconciliation in the next chapter, in which he reviews the history and general definitions of this concept. Moreover, every strategy need not incorporate every principle in order to be effective. Vallacher, Coleman, Nowak, and Bui-Wrzosinska start off this part of the handbook by describing how intractable conflicts can be conceptualized within a dynamic systems perspective. When two or more human groups experience social tension or a downright heated disagreement, the results can be good or bad for business, depending on the circumstances or what caused the upset in the first place. How have these attitudes and behaviors created and perpetuated the ongoing conflict? Black girls were more likely than black boys to report same-race friendships; Hughes explained that it may be related to boys' greater involvement in sports teams. And the activities have to be authentic, as children will recognize anything less than that for what it is.
Also important is the community in which the child lives, and the messages the child encounters; later on, peers, teachers, school officials, and community leaders have significant influence. . Thus, altering our own behavior may require that we enlist the support of others. Specifically, participants noted that it would be useful to involve viewpoints from the fields of political science, public policy, law, religion, architecture, journalism, and urban affairs, for example, to probe the effects of housing policies on intergroup relations, how the design of school buildings influences the institutional climate, how the economies of communities are affected by diversity, and how to eliminate poverty for all children. Answer the above points in a 3- to 4-page paper. In particular, the study directed attention to the nature of borders, which arise when certain knowledge, skills, and behavior in one world are more highly valued and rewarded than in another.
There are two separable but related points embedded in this principle. Growing from this work, the authors conclude the chapter by discussing two approaches to reconciliation that involve confronting discrepant narratives of the past, including public apologies for historical injustices and truth commissions designed to shed light on past events. Weis explained that each setting offered program participants an environment in which differences were acknowledged and respected and interracial relations could grow and be nourished. Immigration is also expected to fuel the growing diversity of the U. Workshop participants agreed that much research is still necessary to gain competence in promoting respectful and peaceful intergroup relations among young people. Conflict in Northern Ireland after the Good Friday Agreement.
Answer the above points in a 3- to 4-page paper. Depending on the level or levels that constitute the focus of our analysis, we may envision different strategies to reduce or resolve conflict, ranging from working with individuals and communities to promoting broader social policies see Lederach,. Tatum underlined the importance of increasing teachers' understanding of the student's background, training teachers in effectively discussing issues such as racism and stereotyping, and helping teachers to have high expectations for students of color, including academic achievement. Principle 10: Strategies should expose the inaccuracies of myths that sustain stereotypes and prejudices. Through focus groups and surveys of adolescents in four communities in Pennsylvania and Michigan, three urban and one rural, Flanagan and her team found that young people learn a great deal at home about other people's rights, responsibility to others, anger and disrespect to others, values, how the self is linked with notions of public good, and public awareness about prejudice.
Through extensive discussions and reviews of each other's chapters, their perspectives have enhanced and mutually informed each other. Confronting conflict allows you to find a mutually beneficial solution before the conflict becomes inflated, according to the Rah Soin School of Business at Wright State. A panel of researchers comprised of Willis D. It is also important to point out, however, that issues that surface among friends who happen to come from different backgrounds can also be perceived by others, and even eventually by themselves, as being racially or ethnically motivated. Workshop participants noted that teachers receive little if any guidance or professional training in how to deal with issues related to the diversity of their students; they have no preparation for facilitating in-depth discussions on race and ethnicity, nor do they learn how to deal with race-related conflicts or how to prepare young people for life in a multiracial society. She and her associates found that school principals, teachers, parents, and students were beginning to be proactive and to challenge traditional policies and practices that could lead to inequi- table treatment. It is understandable if strategies to improve intergroup relations do not deal with the full complexity of intraracial and intraethnic differences, but to ignore this complexity is to encourage another form of stereotyping.
It is also possible that other institutions that place a premium on peaceful, respectful human relations, such as faith communities, may have strategies worth studying. Many stereotypes and sources of conflict are based on myths and misinformation. Ruby Takanishi, in her presentation at the workshop, emphasized the myriad changes in the world of technology and the media and the potential positive influence they can have in terms of interpersonal values, behaviors, and relationships over time. Furthermore, Flanagan 's work also suggests that some young people are aware of how the media sometimes use stereotypes, presenting certain peoples and ethnic groups in stereotypically negative ways, and that they would benefit from opportunities at home and in school to discuss these images. Forty years after the beginning of the civil rights movement, the nation continues to be divided along lines of race and ethnicity.