I observed too that the opposition to them vas universal among Indians. The academic boycott was most successful in Bengal. This movement fundamentally altered the course of the struggle for freedom. In 1921-22, the movement continued with unabated zeal by the participation of masses. Foreign clothes were burnt publicly reducing their imports by half. The Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria came to inaugurate the Mountford Reforms. Later, however, a militant trend emerged, demanding an active agitation such as stopping all cooperation with the British.
In mid-December, Madan Mohan Malaviya initiated a negotiation with the British but that proved futile. The idea was to bring it close to the masses by using the vernacular languages. Provincial Congress Committee and arrested some members present there and seized the draft resolutions of the Congress. In the meanwhile, the Moplah uprising in Kerala, disturbance at Barolo, Calcutta etc. Patel and Kasturiranga Aiyangar and headed by Hakim Ajmal Khan it can be concluded that it testified some outstanding features. Although the Congress leadership was against class war, the masses broke this restraint.
The three important milestones of India's pre independence history, namely the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement and the , were launched and gathered momentum under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. A complete hartal was observed in Madras on the day of his arrival. Though the two movements emerged from separate issues, they adopted a common programme of action—that of non-violent non- cooperation. In the third phase July—November 1921 , the movement became more radical. Many factors forced Gandhi for this bold step. Now, the masses lost the hitherto all-pervasive fear of the colonial rule and its mighty repressive organs.
The Muslim leaders appealed to the Hindus to co-operate with them and support non-cooperation. Promotion of Charkha and Khadi as the symbol of Indian nationalism helped Indian handloom products gain recognition. Jail Bharo was initiated by Congress volunteers. But instead India was paid back through repressive measures by the use of Rowlatt Laws. His day of arrival on 17th November 1921 was observed as the day of hartal.
Pal left the Congress as they believed in a constitutional and lawful struggle while some others like Surendranath Banerjee founded the Indian National Liberal Federation and played a minor role in national politics henceforward. This session garnered greater support in favor of the resolution. A complete hartal was observed in Madras on the day of his arrival. Unable to face the large crowd the policemen entered into the thana or the police station. Thus began the Non-Co-operation Movement of Gandhi to shake the British rule and its foundation. Opposed the idea of Mahatma Gandhi but however, he appealed the Congress to adopt his policy of 'progressive, nonviolent, non-cooperation' which the Congress could not deny.
Thus, the Khilafat question lost its relevance. Picketing of shops selling foreign cloth. However, the result of this movement was far-reaching. Eminent persons like Rajagopalachari, Vallabhbhai Patel, Gopabandhu Das, Ajmal Khan, Subhash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru joined the movement. Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement. Students in thousands left schools and colleges established by the Government.
Thus began the Non-Co-operation Movement of Gandhi to shake the British rule and its foundation. Causes Gandhi entered the Indian political arena around 1916 and initially his ideals were aligned towards the fairness of the British rule. Government made no amends for Punjab wrong. The prominent founders were Kartar Singh Jabbar, Master Tara Singh, Baba Kharak Singh. On 4 September 1920, Congress met at Calcutta in a special session. Students boycotted schools and colleges, law courts.
Result of the Non-Cooperation Movement The Non-Cooperation movement saw definite success despite its abrupt end. On 1 February 1922, in a letter to the Governor General, Gandhi spoke of non—payment of taxes. Like other contemporary political minds, he had assumed that, post war, the people of India would move towards self-governance rapidly. Education was nationalised and modern agriculture and industries developed. The British took repressive measures to deal with the situation. Many renowned and established lawyers like Motilal Nehru, C.
Several legislations were passed by the delegates, wherein the British government was criticized and condemned for its incapability of protecting innocent lives in Punjab and failing to keep its promise in the Khilafat issue. Although Muslim sentiments were a manifestation of the spread of a wider anti-imperialist feeling, the national leaders failed to raise the religious political consciousness of the Muslims to a level of secular political consciousness. In some provinces such as Bengal and Punjab, there was a complete boycott of education by the Firangies. Patriots made prisons as their house of pilgrimage. His next step was to take over the dormant Congress leadership.