The percentage of rural households having two square meals a day increased from 88. Poverty is a condition which drives out the essence of a decent standard of living for the people? This situation underscores the need for rapid growth of output and employment coupled with strengthening of the special programmes of poverty alleviation and employment generation. Weak democracy and economic opening The Indian society is so diverse that the rapid and unequal growth has brought overwhelming inequalities which in a democratic country are rather dangerous. There are two inter-related aspects of poverty-urban and rural. On the other hand, income inequality is the state of an economy, in which the shares of the total income earned by the various participants in the economy are distributed unequally. Gaurav Dutt estimated the squared poverty gap index of India for both the rural and urban people with respect to the pre-Reform 1973-91 and the post Reform periods 1991-99. The chronic problem of unemployment has also been responsible for the prevalence of mass poverty in India.
However, much more needs to be done, for India is the home to the largest poor population in the world. The growth of population in the country has so far exceeded the growth in economy and the gross result is that the poverty figures have remained more or less consistent. If the decline in poverty went from 60% to 35% between the 1970s and the early 1990s, globalization and liberalization policies have made this trend go backwards in the 90s. For India, these are; education. Also assets like land, cattle as well as realty are distributed disproportionately among the population with certain people owning majority shares than other sectors of the society and their profits from these assets are also unequally distributed.
There are two basic pre-requisiters of a poverty eradication programmes. It can be observed further that India must sustain eight 8 per cent growth rate and aim for attaining nine 9 per cent growth rate as otherwise it would not be able to eradicate poverty. Bardhan and Ahluwalia made their study on the basis of their own definition of poverty. Absolute and Relative Poverty 3. Let us further assume there are n number of persons in the society and they have a mean income Y where the income at poverty line is Y P and the number of persons below the poverty line is K. More than the limited space, the multiple use of the single, ill-ventilated room gives rise to other associated problems of ill-health, lack of privacy. In other words, poverty is a state of privation where there is a lack of essential needs for existence.
Nonetheless, they provide clear evidence indicating a substantial decline in the overall poverty ratio in the country during the 1990s. Dense forests once covered India. Recently, the decentralization of the administration was an attempt to improve such efficiency. Following are the ways we stop poverty in India. Less industrial development is a major cause of poverty. They can be categorized under the following heads. It impacts individuals in a socio-psychological way with them not being able to afford simple recreational activities and getting progressively marginalized in the society.
The worst victims had been the agricultural labourers whose real wages had been below the minimum required level of subsistence real wage. . The institutional maladies are needed to be rectified to eradicate poverty completely in the long run. This difference leads to the undeveloped country. The level of investment per family at the end of March 1993 was Rs 7,141. There are a number of reasons for poverty in India. Since agriculture is the largest employer this.
Poverty in India is defined keeping in mind all the dimensions of economy, semi-economy and the definitions which are devise according to international conventions. Hence, quite naturally, such a process appeared as a severe hindrance towards eradication of poverty and inequalities in India. Providing these for all citizens is to both attack poverty and pave way for growth. The indirect taxes are regressive as these impose a higher real burden of tax on the poor. Because of the poverty, around half population in India is living a miserable life. The state specific poverty ratios at the national and state levels and the poverty differentials among different states from 1973-74 to 2004-05 can be seen from Table 12.
In a country, where a chunk of the population is deprived of even minimum amenities of life since long period, the country is suffering from a vicious circle of poverty. The people living below the poverty line may be either very close to it or much further from it. These were: a Allocation of funds and determination of targets were made without considering the size of the population and incidence of poverty leading to wrong identification of families; b The selection of schemes was also not done in a rational manner; c Poverty alleviation programmes failed to recognise importance of increased flow of social inputs through nutrition, family welfare, social security; d This programme neglected the disabled, sick and socially handicapped persons; e The present approach was almost blind about the existence of secondary poverty; f The present poverty line crossing criterion for evaluation the income changes occurring below poverty line; g The poverty alleviation programmes ignored the consequences of the earning activities of the poor people in terms of occupational health hazards and adverse ecological factors. All these adversely affect the income generation prospect. Essay on Poverty in India: Causes and How to Reduce Poverty in India. Poverty forces small children to do work at low cost and help their family financially instead of going to the school. Accordingly, it is broadly agreed that poverty can be termed as a situation where a section of the population fails to reach a certain minimum consumption standard.
The same goes of another tragedy that the country is infamous for:. Poverty Decline in India in the 1990s: A Reality and Not an Artifact. Huge Population India ranks 2nd in the world population. Sometimes due to uncertainty and irregularity of monsoon, agriculture collapses. Soon enough money became a necessary thing in human life and it started ruling the human life. Secondly, the reforms were thwarted by the persistence of the social structure in rural India. Usually, relative poverty is measured as the percentage of population with income less than some fixed proportion of median income.