For more research see: Hinnells, John R. In developing this analysis, it should be kept in mind that elements from Roman, Armenian and Persian Mithraism are utilized, not as a whole ideology but as separate items that may have affected the creation of Christianity, whether directly through the mechanism of Mithraism or through another Pagan source within the Roman Empire and beyond. Although not observed by the Eastern Orthodox, nor the majority of Protestants, Ash Wednesday is part of the observances of the Church of Rome. Instead of hindering the faith of the slaves, the incorporation of the saints added something new to their religion. Let's go back to your earlier query: the connection between Sol Invictus rising from a virgin rock, and Jesus? His functions evidently included the administration of the sacraments and the celebration of the services. This Mithra or Mitra Sun-God is believed to be a Mediator between God and man, between the Sky and the Earth.
The seven grades of Mithraism, were: Corax Raven , Nymphus Male Bride , Miles Soldier , Leo Lion , Peres Persian , Heliodromus Sun-Runner , and Pater Father ; each respective grade protected by Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, the Moon, the Sun, and Saturn. But he was born, according to tradition, upon December the 25th. In order to avoid the reproaches of that were leveled at the 1986 Assisi meeting where the representatives of all religions held one common prayer, the follow-up meetings saw the representatives of the different religions pray in different places according to their respective traditions. But many years after their fixing the canons, this festival was invented, as some say, by the disciples of the heretic Cerinthus; and was accepted by the Greeks, because they were truly fond of festivals and most fervent in piety; and by them it was spread and diffused all over the world. The Roman Cult of Mithras, p. After the earthly mission of this god had been accomplished, he took part in a Last Supper with his companions before ascending to heaven, to forever protect the faithful from above.
Historians of many persuasions have been convinced that Emperor Constantine was less interested in Christianity per se than he was in unifying his Empire. A relief from Vercovium Housesteads on shows Mithras emerging from the cosmic egg, which is represented both as such and by the shape of the zodiacal ring. Theme Old Testament Reference New Testament fulfilled in Jesus Ascension of Jesus to the right hand of God Ps. In both scenes, the vernal sacrifice appears at the centre of the image. During the celebration of the vernal equinox, the Phrygian priests of the Great Mother attributed the blood shed in the Taurobolium to the redemptive power of the blood of the Divine Lamb shed on the Christian Easter. I have not been able to find the French original, but the key passage of the 1872 American abbreviated translation runs as follows: It is chiefly in the religion of Mithras or the God Sun, worshipped under that name by the Magi, that we find mostly those features of analogy with the death and resurrection of Christ and with the mysteries of the Christians.
They believe in the divine knowledge and essence of , among other messengers such as , , , , , and others. Of course this is not to say that Christianity equals Mithra-ism in any way. Greek myths told of the Minotaur, a half-man half-bull monster who lived in the Labyrinth beneath Crete, and took an annual sacrifice of six young men and six maidens before being slain by the hero Theseus. Besides the date of birth and death you wrote of Origen, is the date of birth and date of Clement of Alexandria. Those who made it through the Taurobolium were revered by their brethren, and accepted in the fold of Mithraism.
The late nineteenth century scholar was once almost the sole western expert in Mithraism and he propagated the idea that the Persian Mithra was adopted wholesale by the Romans and spread across the Roman Empire from the east much as Christianity was to do later. While I am not saying that 21st century people are intentionally practicing Mithraism, the mixing of pagan worship practices with those of the true God is repeatedly warned against in the Bible Jeremiah 10:2-5; Exodus 23:24; Deuteronomy 12:1-4. The Mithraic clergy's duty was to maintain the perpetual holy fire on the altar, invoke the planet of the day, offer the sacrifices for the disciples, and preside at initiations. Following is a chart demonstrating some of the New Testament themes found in the Old Testament. If the cross was an oft used symbol or sacred image for early Christians, the above accusation would not have been made against them. Judaism was just such an ancestral religion. As in recent times, we hear of weeping images and winking Madonnas, and innumerable prodigies besides, continually occurring in the Romish Church, in proof of this papal dogma or that, so was it also in the system of Babylon.
Stop cluttering up my comments with this junk babble. His symbol is the Lamb. For the sake of simplicity, lets use the material on hand here: let's look for Jesus coming from a virgin rock. Mithraism had no concept of the death and resurrection of its god and no place for any concept of rebirth -- at least during its early stages. Purification through a ritualistic baptism was required of the faithful, who also took part in a ceremony in which they drank wine and ate bread to symbolize the body and blood of the god. The first positive evidence we have of the presence of Mithraism in the West is an inscription of a freedman in the household of one of the Flavian emperors, and hence dating somewhere in the years 70-96 A.
During the early stages of the cult, the notion of rebirth would have been foreign to its basic outlook. Peter-at-Gowts in Lincoln, England, there is a , possibly from an unknown Mithraeum in Roman Lincoln. The gods were everywhere, and. So the prank fizzled out and we were forced to find some other way to avoid actual study. The Catholic scholar Arendzen noted: Mithraism. Collections of this kind formed part of the apologetic of the medieval church, which thus had a two-fold proof of Christianity; one from Jewish prophecies of Christ, one from pagan prophecies. Mithras was also the only Iranian god whose name was known in ancient Greece.
The shedding of the sacrificial blood brought great blessings to the world, which Ahriman tried to prevent. The basis for the idea is found in Tertullian, who states that followers of Mithras were marked on their forehead in an unspecified manner. Why would Cerinthus pick December 25th? Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized Dec 19, 2008, pp. Other Modern Christian views, including some conservative , reject the idea of the New Testament as an extended covenant, and retain the classical Christian view as described earlier. The initiation into a rank involved severe training and an concluding test. The Persian Origins of Mithraism In order to fully understand the religion of Mithraism it is necessary to look to its foundation in Persia, where originally a multitude of gods were worshipped.
Interestingly enough, while worship of Miça is attested going back to pre-Hellenistic times, the original Iranian Miça bears little resemblance to the Roman Mithras. Apart from Judaism, only two religious 'firms' in antiquity developed this feature of community life to the full: Christianity and Mithraism. I will begin by looking at the particular beliefs and practices of Mithraism, then consider theories concerning its origins, and finally evaluate arguments about its influence on early Christianity. Today, many conservative evangelicals support , much to the irritation of , based partly on the belief that the modern state of represents the fulfillment of. Virtually every pagan religious practice and festivity that couldn't be suppressed or driven underground was eventually incorporated into the rites of Christianity as it spread across Europe and throughout the world. Loizeaux Brothers, Second American edition 1959, p. Fishman, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp.