Geographic factors mean physical and biological factors tied to geographic location, including climate, the distributions of wild plant and animal species, soils, and topography. Term Pattern Definition The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area. The problem of nature: Environment, culture and European expansion. It is based upon the assumption that environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by social conditions. Term Remote Sensing Definition The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods. Term Pollution Definition Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate. We must avoid confusing once more necessity with possibility.
Reason for Rejection Considered too extremist. The first attempt to explain the physical features and character traits of various peoples and their culture with reference to the influence of natural conditions was made by the Greek and Roman scholars. Term Ethnicity Definition Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions. Term Animism Definition Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life. Term Connections Definition Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Subsequent geographers like Mackinder, Chisholm, Davies, Bowman, Robert Mill, Geddes, Sauer, Herbertson, Taylor, etc. He lived from 1332 to 1406, during which time he wrote a complete world history and explained that dark human skin was caused by the hot climate of Sub-Saharan Africa. Term Parallel Definition A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians. Nevertheless, many of the current concepts were incorporated in the geographical descriptions of different parts of the Earth. Term Photochemical Smog Definition An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicles. Eskimos differ markedly from the Tundra tribes of Siberia. Term Arithmetic Density Definition The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Timidity engenders superstition and in lands ruled by kings it leads to slavery. Term Greenhouse Effect Definition Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface. . He was quite emphatic in describing the effect of environment on the mode of life and attitudes of people. This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition The formula that calculates population change.
Another example of environmental determinism would be the theory that island nations have unique cultural traits solely because of their isolation from continental societies. Term Language Group Definition A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary. Term Crude Death Rate Definition The total number of deaths for every 1,000 people alive in the society. But he should not, if he is wise, depart from directions as indicated by natural environment. Monarchies are more frequency found in fruitful countries, and republics in sterile ones. Ontography is an idealist concept expressive of the Darwinian determinism, which W. This aspect of geography is Scientific Determinism.
Term Acid Precipitation Definition Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog. Of course, now we know that there are lazy people from all different places, but back then, environmental determinism was popular. Thomas Malthus who was a scientific determinist 1766-1834 , emphasized not only the influence of different environments but also the limitations which the earth imposed on social development. Term Agricultural Density Definition The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture. Semple was the direct descendant of Ratzel. Could it be climatically tied? She has entered into his bones and tissues, into his mind and soul. Term Literary Tradition Definition A language that is written as well as spoken.
Term Quota Definition In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year. Term Greenbelt Definition A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area. He postulated that the development of the European people took place in three very different geographical environments, namely, the steppes, the maritime shores and the forested lands. The natural data factors are much more the material than the cause of human development. Cultural Ecology Another way to approach cultural geography is related to environmental possibilism. He advanced theories relating to course of civilization to climatic change.
Glacken 1956, 1967 , however, attempted to identify three-different modes of nature-society or man-environment relations which appear to have permeated the history of Western thought: 1. The farther away from it, the more successful it is. He did not merely explain phenomena in human geography in terms of natural conditions, but stressed the significance of the historical development and cultural background of populations. The ideal environment was a temperate one: free from extremes of heat or cold, yet blessed with a bracing seasonal contrast between winter and summer. Everything seemed to point to one and the same conclusion, that man was not as free as had been thought, and that his actions were largely controlled by natural or economic laws. A popular Indian religion, Hinduism, developed the belief that cows were sacred and should not be eaten. Term Language Branch Definition A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.