It creates problem of coordination between different managers and organizational units. But Hendricks claimed that evaluating the situation and making a decision should not be too difficult. Actual spans in business organization indicate that there is no single best number that can be universally applied. A 2005 study by the city of indicated that the span of control in the had been steadily increasing since 1995. Why do people resist change? It is important to note that all managers experience a decrease in effectiveness as their span of control exceeds the optimal level.
Experienced, well-trained employees need less supervision, allowing for wider spans of control, while new or untrained personnel call for narrower spans. An example of this would be customer service organizations, such as call centers. Span of management has been part of the historical discussion regarding the most appropriate design and structure of organizations. Harder for manager to supervise and co-ordinate the exact work of subordinates and ensure they are working towards same common goal. In other words, the limitations implied by span of control are not shortcomings of certain individual managers but rather of managers in general. On the other hand, a narrow span of control can also create a situation where managers are too involved in their subordinates' work, which can reduce innovation and morale among employees. Comparison between Wide Spans and Narrow Spans of Management are given below: A narrow span tall organizational structure , which results in many levels in the organization, creates problems both in terms of cost and efficiency.
The more standardized is the nature of tasks ,i. With all of these factors to consider, small business owners might become overwhelmed with the task of finding the optimal span of control. To avoid potential problems of wide spans of control, organizations are having to invest in training managers and employees and in technology enabling the sharing of information and enhancing communication between and among managers and employees. Supervisors managing few employees have a narrow span of control. Uses time that could be used on doing the work instead … of reporting about it.
Employees will need to be relatively more self-motivated and independent in their work style due to having less manager input. Nature of Work: Different types of work require different patterns of management. This requires a smaller span of control. The availability of the first-line supervisor tends to have more importance than in other settings, while mid-level managers are mostly number crunchers. In addition, it is important to understand that span of control refers only to direct reports, rather than to an entire corporate hierarchy.
The concept of span of management was developed in the United Kingdom in 1922 by Sir Ian Hamilton. Other situations in which a broader span of control might be possible include when the manager delegates effectively; when there are staff assistants to screen interactions between the manager and subordinates; when subordinates are competent, well-trained, and able to work independently; and when subordinates' goals are well-aligned with those of other workers and the organization. Graicumas illustrated the concept of span of control mathematically. This makes it difficult for manages at higher levels to keep in touch with ground realities at operating level. It arose from the assumption that managers have finite amounts of time, energy, and attention to devote to their jobs. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of having a wide span of control or a narrow span of control? The narrower the span of control, the more effective the manager can be.
However, some research also suggests the wider span of management may cause employees to feel greater ownership of their work and increase their motivation, morale, and productivity. Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Hitt, Michael, Stewart Black, and Lyman W. It is important to note that all managers experience a decrease in effectiveness as their span of control exceeds the optimal level. The two relationships are different because in the first case Y consults X and in the second case X consults Y and in both cases situations may be different. For most effective operations, it is necessary to have the optimum number of subordinates to supervise. What Is Span of Control? In such cases, a manager can competently control and oversee many employees.
Other improvements in methods are detailed in the related links. On the other hand, in a research and development department, where a supervisor is expected to foster creativity and promote employee growth, the cost of having a small span of control might pay off in the form of new and lucrative ideas. It arose from the assumptions that managers have finite amounts of energy, time, and attention to devote. Factors Determining Span : The determination of span depends upon the number of relationships that can be managed by a superior. Degree of Planning: Plans which can provide rules, procedures in doing the work higher would be the degree of span of management. Advantages are:close relationships between workers and employeesclose supervision of employee tasksgreater supervisorial attention to employees by managerspossibility for more upward growth for employeespossibility for greater complexity of tasks for employeesDisadvantages are related to overall cost, communication, feelings of remoteness, difficulties with motivation and morale.
It suggests how the relations are designed between a superior and a subordinate in an organization. In either case, small business owners must balance their own capabilities and workload against the need to control costs. Attitude towards delegation Additional factors that determine span in an organization can be listed as follows: 1. They thus choose to manage lots of people directly, rather than delegating tasks to middle managers, in an effort to continue being involved in key decisions as the business grows. The manager normally gets involved when the staff fails to run the show. The result will be that the manager cannot supervise as many employees and would be most effective with a narrower span of management. However, all management experts agree that there is a definite span limiting the number of subordinates who can be managed effectively by one executive.
Top managers usually oversee other managers, and managers of any rank tend to do work requiring judgment, creativity and problem resolution. Such managers may enjoy a hands-on approach or may feel uncomfortable delegating authority. Some other factors affecting the optimal span of control include whether workers perform tasks of a routine nature which might permit a broader span of control or of great variety and complexity which might require a narrower span of control , and whether the overall business situation is stable which would indicate a broader span or dynamic which would require a narrower span. Hence, employees may be less enthusiastic in their jobs. Therefore the advantages are: 1 The economy might widen seen as though there are less children. Managers should also have fewer direct reports if those subordinates interact with each other frequently.